Trogistidae

Trogistids range in length from 2.6 to 20 mm. Most are brown to brownish black; a few are bluish green. Adults in the subfamily Trogossitinae are elongate beetles, with the head about as wideas the pronotum, and thepronotum widely separated from the base of the elytra (waist-like appearance). These beetles have large and powerful mandibles, and are primarily predators on insects under bark, and a few are stored-food pests.

Cadelle, Tenebroides mauritianicus Adults are 6-10 mm long. The body is elongate, somewhat flattened, and shiny black. The prothorax is distinctly separated from the body, giving a waist-like appearance. Larvae are yellowish white to gray, with a black head, and black prothoracic dorsal plate. The abdomen has two horny black projections (urogomphi) at the tip, they are surrounded by black plate. Eggs are deposited in batches of 10-60 in food materials or inserted in crevices; the interval between egg batches is 10-14 days; fecundity is 436-1319 eggs. Hatching is in about 7 days at 28 °C and 15-17 days at 21 °C. Females that emerge in summer lay eggs the same year, but cease during winter, and resume oviposi-tion in the following spring. Females that emerge in spring complete their egg-laying and die before winter. Larvae molt three or four times, but as many as seven molts is possible when the development period is long. Larval development is completed in about 69 days on maize, wheat, or graham flour; development on barley flour takes about 90 days; development on rice is not completed until the following summer. Larvae do not complete development on refined white flour. Develop-mentinterrupted by hibernation takes 271-410 days. The pupal period is 8 days at 29 °Cand 25 days at 21 °C. Pupae are formed in a separate chamber in the infested material. Full-grown larvae burrow into softwood timber adjacent to the infestation site. The pupal period is 8 days at 29 °C and 25 days at 21 °C. In tropical climates there are three generations per year; in temperate regions there are two generations per year. Larvae and adults feed on nuts, seeds, dried fruits, and vegetables, as well as grains and their milled products. Adults also feed on other insects in the habitat, including larvae of the cheese skipper, Tribolium flour beetles, and larvae and adults oftheir own species. This insect is cosmopolitan and is a common pest in granaries, storehouses, and mills where it infests flour, meal, and grain. This is one of the longest-lived of the insects that attack stored grain, which increases the potential for damage by the adults and larvae, and the potential for dispersal to other locations.

Siamese grain beetle, Lophocateres pusillus Adults are 2.6-3.2 mm long, broadly oval, and blackish brown. Elytra have longitudinal ridges, and the anterior margin of the pronotum is straightand the edges have distinctpoints. Full-grown larvae are about 5.4 mm long and yellowish white; there is a distinct tubercle between the strongly curved urogomphi. Eggs are laid in fan-shaped clusters ofii-i4in cracks and crevices. Hatching fails at temperatures below 15 °C or above 37 °C. Larval development is completed in about 54 days at 23 °C and 75% RH, 49 days at 35 °C and 95% RH, and 180 days at 20 °C and 95% RH; there are four larval instars. Full-grown larvae construct a pupal chamber in the food. This species attacks a variety of legumes, rice and rice products, cereals, cocoa beans, coffee beans, nutmeg, cassava, sweet potatoes, and dried fruits. Sound rice kernels are resistant to attack, but are attacked if slightly damaged.

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