Urbanization

The quality of life for most people in the future will be determined by the quality of cities. In 1950,60% of the world's population lived in villages and small towns in countryside. By the year 2030,60% of the world's people will be living in metropolitan areas anchored by a large city. Those cities will be bigger than ever and dominate the landscape: most of these cities will be in developing countries. Explosive growth in urban populations and the steady stream of migration of people from the countryside put great strains on city services and the quality of life. The housing, health care, water, and sanitation systems must keep pace with the growth, and the threat of disease. Despite the conditions, migration to cities continues, and that is good news. Cities provide development and growth, and generally a better life than in rural areas. The future of many developed countries is linked to their cities. Urban growth is inevitable: the challenge is how to address the consequences and improve the quality of life from city center to the unplanned housing at the perimeter of the metropolis.

Insects and other arthropods that carry and transmit disease organisms present a threat to the cities and densely populated urban areas of the world. In these areas, crowded living conditions and poor sanitation support vector populations, and the concentration ofhuman hosts can maintain common diseases and rapidly spread new ones. Pest management and control strategies will be based on pest identification and life-cycle information, an understanding of reservoir habitats, and effective chemical and nonchemical control materials.

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