Vespidae

These are the well-known paper wasps, umbrella wasps, yel-lowjackets, hornets, mason wasps, and potter wasps. Most are black with yellow or white markings, or brown with yellow markings. These wasps usually fold their wings longitudinally at rest. Some species are considered eusocial, and the individuals in a colony are morphologically distinct queens, workers, and males. In other species, there is only a slight size difference between the queens and workers. Social vespids constructnests from papery material that consists of chewed wood or foliage. Colonies in temperate regions last one season, and the queens overwinter. Mason and potter wasps are solitary, and some use cavities in soil, twigs, or logs; others make a nest of mud or clay.

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