Western drywood termite Incisitermes minor Fig 104b

Alates are 11-12 mm long with the wings, the head is reddish brown, and the body is black to slightly bluish black. Wings are grayish black and the coastal veins are black. The ocelli are somewhat elongated; the eyes are round and relatively small. Antennae are 15-segmented; segment 3 is longer and darker than segment 2 or 4. Soldiers are 8-10 mm long, and the pronotum is twice as broad as long. Antennal segment3 of the soldier is equal in length to the combined length of the next three or four segments. Abdomen lacks long setae in rows. Supplementary reproductives are about 10 mm long, light brown and with dark brown eyes. Soldiers are 8-10 mm long. The head is reddish brown and blackish brown on the anterior part; mandibles are black. The thorax and abdomen are pale brown to brown. Antennal segment 3 is elongated and enlarged at the tip, about twice as long as segments 4-6 combined. Mandibles are about as long as the width of the head.

Colonies live without contact with the soil. They consist of the founding reproductives, soldiers, and nymphs, there is no worker caste. Founding pairs bore directly into wood or they enter through cracks and other openings. Natural infestations occur in dead cottonwood, ash, walnut, and cypress trees, logs, and branches. In living trees, the galleries extend across the grain of the wood, and the sapwood and heartwood are excavated. In structures, the founding pair may enter houses through attic vents or shingled roofs, or the foundation vents. They will infest rafters, ridgepoles, and sheeting in the attic. In the living area, they infest window frames, and sills, doorframes, and doorsills, and in the substructure, they may infest floor joists. They also infestwooden furniture or other wooden materials in houses. Evidence of an established colony is usually piles of brown fecal pellets below small holes in the infested wood, particularly where the outer walls of the wood are thin. The pellets are about 0.8 mm long, rounded, and with six longitudinal ridges.

Swarming flights during the day generally occur from 11:00 to 15:00 h. In northern California, flights occur during June and July, and from September to November in southern California. In Arizona, flights occur in June and July. Large colonies may have about 3000 winged forms; typically, fewer than 20 alates emerge from the nest. New colonies are composed of about 20 nymphs and one soldier. After 2 years, the colony may consist of one soldier and 6-40 nymphs. Colonies at 3 years may have 70-700 individuals, and the ratio of soldiers to nymphs in a 3-4-year-old colony is 1:15-1:60. Winged adults are produced when acolony is about4years old, and well-established colonies have about 1000 individuals after 7 years. Optimum temperature for feeding is 26-32 °C, exposure to 37.8 °C is lethal in 2 weeks, and a 4-h exposure to 44.5 °C is lethal. In temperate climates, this species often infests upper floors and attics ofbuildings; in hot climates infestations are often close to the ground. At optimum temperatures, nymphs consume about 0.59 mg of wood per day; a large drywood termite colony containing about 1000 nymphs consumes about 0.25 kg of wood per day.

The natural distribution ofthis species in North America is from southern California east to the peripheral desert regions of Arizona and Utah. This species is easily transported in boxes, crates, and furniture. Infestations may occur in Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Virginia. This species is a structural pest in Japan.

Incisitermes schwarzi (Fig. 10.4a) Alates are 15-16 mm long with the wings. The body is 8-9 mm long and yellowish brown;

the pronotum is pale brown in frontand dark brown to blackish brown on the posterior corners. Mandibles are black at their tips. There are 20 antennal segments; segment 3 is darker but not longer than the other segments. The head, pronotum, and abdomen have long, erect setae; on the abdomen the setae are in rows near the hind margin of each segment. Soldiers are 7-10 mm long and yellowish brown; the anterior margin of the pronotum is not concave. Mandibles are black. The femora are greatly swollen. There are two forms ofsoldiers: one with the head slightly longer than broad, and one with the head distinctly longer than broad. In both forms, antennal segment3 is as long as segment 4 and 5 together, and darker than the adjacent segments. Soldiers usually have 20 antennal segments. Colonies may contain primary and secondary reproductives. Secondary queens are 6.5-10 mm long, and secondary males about 8 mm long. Secondary forms have 14-15 antennal segments. Swarming flights occur in April and May. Natural infestation sites include dead trees, tree stumps, and down logs. In the urban environment, damage is to woodwork in buildings and utility poles. This species is common in southern, coastal Florida.

Incisitermes snyderi (Fig. 10.1e) Alates are 15-16 mm long with the wings. The body is yellow to yellowish brown. Soldiers are 7-10 mm long and yellowish brown, and the antennae are 12- or 13-segmented. Segment 3 of the antenna is elongate, but not as long as segment 4 and 5 together. The anterior margin of the pronotum is deeply concave at the midline. Natural infestation sites include dead trees, down logs, and branches. Secondary reproductive queens are about 9 mm long. Swarming flights occur in early evening after sunset in May and June. The small number of individuals that constitute a swarming flight may be attracted to lights at night. Damage is done to the woodwork in buildings, hardwood furniture (white ash), foundation timbers, and utility poles. This species is distributed from South Carolina to Florida and west to Texas, and into Mexico.

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