These are large termites; the alates may be 25 mm long. Alates usually have more than 23 antennal segments; the tarsi are five-segmented, and both alates and soldiers have one or more spines on the tibia ofone or more pairs oflegs. This genus is confined to North America, where there are three species. Two occur in Pacific northwest and Pacific coastal areas, and the third occurs in the southwestern desert. These are very large, wood-dwelling termites that generally require high-moisture habitats. Zootermopsis nevadensis and Z. angusticollis inhabit damp wood and can tolerate a range of temperatures. These termites are often characterized as inhabiting decayed wood, but this situation is encountered primarily in mature colonies. The colonizing pair usually seeks sound wood in down logs, standing dead trees, and dead portions of living trees. The fecal pellets

Figure 10.3 Isoptera. (a) Coptotermes niger; (b) Zootermopsis angusticollis; (c) Kalotermes flavicollis; (d) Cryptotermes brevis; (e) C. havilandi; (f) Prorhinotermes simplex.

of these termites are rounded and usually scattered through the nest galleries, or they may be expelled from the nest. They lack the longitudinal ridges that characterize drywood termite pellets. Although these dampwood termites do not cause damage on the same level as drywood or subterranean termites, they can cause economic damage when they are associated with urban structures.

Zootermopsis angusticollis (Fig. 10.2f; 10.3b) Alates are about 25 mm long with the wings; body color ranges from yellowish brown to dark brown. Wings are 23-25 mm long and about twice the length ofthe entire body, and gray to dark gray. The body has only a few long setae, with few to none on the head; the anterior corners of the pronotum are rounded. The antennae are longer than the head and pronotum combined. Soldiers are 15-20 mm long, but the size varies with the age of the colony. The soldier head is 1.25 times longer than broad, and dark red and reddish black anteriorly; the mandibles are black. The sides of the head are concave and the head is somewhat narrower in front than behind. Antennae are not as long as the head and there are 25 segments. The fecal pellets are about 1 mm long, rounded, and usually the color of the wood infested. Swarming is at dusk, usually before sunset, and it occurs in May, and July to November. Natural infestations occur in dead tree trunks and branches (Quercus), and tree stumps (Pinus). In the urban environment the adults are attracted to lights at night. This species

Figure 10.4 Isoptera. (a) Incisitemes schwarzi, winged adult; (b) I. minor; (c) Zootermopsis nevadensis; (d) Reticulitermes tibialis; (e) Cryptotermes cavifrons.

C. brevis has been introduced into Australia several times, and has been detected in Brisbane, Maryborough (Queensland), and Sydney.

Cryptotermescavifrons (Fig. 10.4e) Alates are 8.5-9 mm long, the body is pale brown, and the antennae and legs are very pale brown. The wings are clear, and the veins are brown. Mandibles are blackish brown. The width of the head through the eyes is less than 1 mm. The ocelli are large and subtriangu-lar. Antennae are much longer than the head, and have about 15 segments. The soldier is 3.5-4.5 mm long. The head is blackish brown in front and reddish brown behind. The body is brownish yellow; legs are pale yellow. Antennae are yellowish white, and the mandibles are black. In the front of the head is a large cavity, and the sloped frontal area has a rough surface. The upper surface of the head is smooth and only slightly roughened in front toward the cavity. Antennae are nearly as long as the height of the head, and 13-segmented. Swarming flights occur from February to May. Natural infestations occur in the solid portions of decayed logs. This species is known to occur in Florida, from St. Johns county south.

Cryptotermes cyanocephalus Alates emerge from colonies in early morning from July to December. The alates leave the nest in low numbers and flights are repeated at intervals of 5-10 days; they are attracted to outdoor lights. They fly for short distances and land on the sides ofbuildings, then break off their wings and search for holes or cracks in the bare wood siding. Colony development is slow. This species is native to the Philippines and Indonesia, but has spread to other tropical and neotropical locations. Rarely itis found in natural habitats; it nests primarily in structures.

Cryptotermes domesticus This species nests in dry, seasoned wood at ground level. Swarming flights are usually during the rainy season, and small numbers of alates emerge at a time. This species is a household pest in southern Asia, but it also occurs in natural habitats. It is widely distributed in Asia, the south Pacific, and Central America. In Asia, it is found in India, Borneo, Sumatra, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, and islands in the region.

Cryptotermes dudleyi This species is primarily found infesting houses, with few nests found in natural habitats. Colonies are large, and several may live close to each other in the same piece of timber. Itis widespread, and occurs in Africa, Asia, Australia, New Guinea, Central and South America, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines.

Cryptotermes havilandi (Fig. 10.3e) This species is probably native to east Africa where household infestations are rare. It has spread to other parts ofAfrica, southeastern Asia, and the Caribbean area, where itattacks structural wood as well as dead and living wood in trees in coastal and inland areas. In Africa, swarming occurs throughout the year, but is most common in January and February.

Other Cryptotermes There are several species in this genus that are known to utilize structural timber, as well as natural habitats, as nest sites. For some species, house infestations are more common outside their natural distribution. C. declivis is distributed in southern China and it is a pest of structural timber, such as door and window frames, ceiling beams, roof trusses, woodwork, and furniture.

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